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What is tourism: classification and their characteristics - extreme

chto takoe turizm?

Interest in new places was inherent in man at all times. In search of a better life brave explorers took chances and went on long journeys.

Thanks to the development of vehicles, modern man available to travel to any destination in the world with minimal risk, and for many it becomes a favorite way of recreation. So, take a look at what tourism.

What is it?


In the minds of most people, tourism is connected with recreation, although this is not always the case.


In the most General sense, tourism is travel without a change of permanent residence.

Who is this tourist? This is a person who is outside their usual environment not more than 12 months for any purpose, except for earnings in a place of stay.

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Features of the industry

Tourism as an activity is one of the economic sectors, therefore there is a need for specialists in tourism. For many universities to open the specialty "tourism". In the process of learning this profession special attention given to the study of geography and foreign languages, and business processes related to tourism activities.

osobennosti oblasti

Tourism as an activity can be viewed from two sides. On the one hand, tourism is the activities of professionals providing an opportunity for everyone to travel. This includes tour operators and travel agencies.

On the other hand, tourism is the activities of tourists travelling.

International tourism

To international tourism include travel outside of their country, it is divided into:

  • Inbound – travel within the country of people without permanent residence in this country. For tourism this means the need to create the most comfortable conditions for acceptance of foreign citizens in compliance with all aspects of the legislation.
  • Away – travel of persons outside the country in which they live. In this case tourism organisations create optimal conditions for travel abroad of his countrymen, compliance with visa legislation of another state.

Functional classification according to the forms

formovaya klassifikaciya

Classification of types of tourism depends on several forms, which are based on different attributes.

Purpose of trip

Depending on the purpose of travel in Russia and other countries, there are two main types of tourism:

  1. Recreational travel for the purpose of recreation and entertainment. This is the most common type of tourism, it accounts for about 70% of all international trips;
  2. Business travel in order to perform professional tasks. This includes trips, travel to participate in conferences, congresses, meetings. There are several types of business tourism: corporate leisure activities, trips to trade fairs and exhibitions, incentive tours.
  3. Business travelers can call anyone whose duties areinclude a stay outside their usual environment. This includes flight attendants, truck drivers, guides.

According to the method of conducting

Organized tourism – travel, which involved a travel company. Usually such trips are made on advance payment and assume an orderly program of excursions and travels.

Unorganized travel without intermediaries in the face of travel agencies. Don't have a regimented program. One of the options are hitchhiking.


Depending on the number of tourists traveling together, there are the following forms of tourism:

  • Individual – joint visit from one to five, inclusive;
  • Group – trips, involving more than five people. Groups are formed based on common goals and interests of travelers;
  • Family – together involves travelling family members.


po vremeni

Depending on the time spent on the trip, there are:

  1. short-term travel (tours of day, not more than 7 days);
  2. medium (9 to 12 days);
  3. long-term (15 days or more).

According to the method of placing

Stationary – traveller during the whole period is in one place.

Stationary tourism is suitable for those who wants to relax and unwind from the usual hustle and bustle.

A movable (nomadic) – the tourist during his visit is moved from one location to another. Suitable for those who loves outdoor activities and not afraid of physical exertion.

In accordance with the age

Isolated children's, youth, adult and retirement tourism. The age of tourists influences the excursion programs, diet, amount of movement during travel.

Depending on the vehicles

  • Hiking – most of the movement happens without vehicles.
  • Water – sports tourism, which is the overcoming of the spaces on the sports courts. An important criterion is the existence of certain obstacles and self-manage the means of transportation.
  • Horse riding is available not only to professionals of the equestrian sport, but also for people without special training. Horse travel can be healthy, if the person has no contraindications for riding.
  • Ski is one of the types of sports tourism, which uses a special tourist skis and heat retaining equipment. For those who are not afraid of low temperatures.
  • lyzhnye sredstva peredvizheniya

  • Bicycle – the main means of transportation is a Bicycle. Requires some physical training.
  • Motorcycle – travel on motorcycles. The most "brutal" of all kinds, suited to a limited number of people who are not afraid to take risks.
  • Transport (car, bus) – travel with the use of special types of transport.

The intensity of tours

Permanent – visiting tourist spots occurring evenly throughout the year.

Seasonal travel to tourist places, popular at certain times of the year, which may be associated with climate change and with certain annual events.

Basic and special types of tours

There are many types of tourism. Consider some of them.

Feature the most popular

Excursion and cultural-cognitive. The tour is a visit to a traveler new places with informative purposes for a period not exceeding 24 hours. If a person stays in a new place overnight, it's cultural tourism.

The features of such tourism is the acquaintance with the local attractions and use of the services of a guide.

populyarnye ekskursionnye tury

Some isolated cruise tourism – marine and river trip, during which most of the time tourists spend on the ship with special facilities for recreation and entertainment.

For segments of the population with low income, the state makes available so-called social tourism activities, the cost of which is fully or partially kompensiruet from the state budget and employers.

Recreational tourism – travel for recreation and restore physical and mental strength, one of the mostcommon types of tourism. Distinguish the following types:

  1. tourist and health - important climatic factors having a positive effect on health;
  2. educational tourism involves outdoor activities – sports, games, and Hiking.

A subspecies is a recreational and rural tourism – rest using the resources of the countryside. This holiday is common in some European countries. Tourists live in rural areas and engaged in physical labor in exchange for housing and food. This allows you to relax from the urban life to join the rural culture.

Rural tourism has several subtypes: ethnographic, agricultural, educational, cooking, fishing, sports, adventure, educational, exotic, combined, event, Wellness.

Health tourism is conducted for the purpose of improving the condition of the body. There are many types of health tourism, as the main health factors are mineral waters, mud baths and climate, has a therapeutic effect.

Ethnic tourism is committed with the aim of exploring the cultural and linguistic characteristics of a particular ethnic group.

Reunion and nostalgic tourism is associated with visits to the places in which was born the tourist or his relatives. This trip to "my roots". These include trips to the countryside, where stronger than in the cities, retained ethnic traditions and culture, and travel in a country where people used to live.

Business and professional includes trips to scientific conferences and meetings. Associated with professional activities of man. The purpose of such travel can be training or discussion of current professional issues. Often the decision on such trips are not made by the tourists and their employers.

harakteristika delovoj formy

Here are a few types of tourism are popular:

  • Religious. A pilgrimage visiting places of importance to the religion, professed by the traveler. Temples, monasteries, icons and other places associated with a certain belief. Religious tourism is part of the faith and encouraged religious leaders. Types of religious tourism: pilgrimage, religious, educational, scientific;
  • Event. This travel program which is built around large-scale events. It is a relatively young direction. Event tourism is subdivided into thematic categories: national holidays, festivals, film and theater festivals related to food tourism, festivals and flower shows, fashion shows, sports events;
  • Child. Aimed at forming healthy lifestyle among the younger generation. The main form are nature tours, and tours with informative purposes, including the study of the attractions of his native land.
  • Children's tourism has an educational function, forms the skills of adaptation to the natural environment, communication in the peer group, broadens the mind.

Common trip to Europe

The above types of tourism are distributed worldwide, but more popular ones of them, and the somewhere-other. For example, bus tourism is very common in Europe, as it is quite budget form of travel, and accessible to wide layers of the population. Another very popular cruise tourism, yachting and other kinds of water tourism.

But particularly important in this part of the world is cultural tourism - visits outside the permanent place of residence of cultural attractions - museums, historic sites and art galleries. There are several types of such tourism: architectural, historical, musical, urban, rural, tourism literature and arts, parks and culture.

Among the most attractive in cultural terms, cities and regions of Europe are the following:

  1. Paris, France. In the French capital there are about 200 art galleries and 80 museums;
  2. Berlin, Germany. The most memorable architectural sites of the city: the square Alexanderplatz, the Reichstag building, the Brandenburg tower and Tiergarten Park;
  3. Madrid, Spain. The Spanish capital is widely known as an artistic center, it is one of the best museums of the world Prado;
  4. rasprostranennye evropejskie marshruty

  5. Athens, Greece. This city is an endless Museum of ancient Greek architecture. One of the main architectural masterpieces of the Acropolis;
  6. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. In the city of flowers open 61 art gallery, 53 museums, 20 theatres and 12 concert halls.

In Italy thepopular cities in cultural terms become incomparable Rome, Pisa and Naples.

Active travel

Youth tourism is a tours and excursions focused on young travelers. Youth – the most active age group, not afraid of physical activity and long-term movements, but do not have substantial funds for the purchase of travel services.

Therefore, for young people many companies operating in the tourism sector, provide discounts. Youth refers to age category of people between 18 and 30 years. It's the people that are most often not burdened by family obligations and want to stay maximum number of exciting experiences. The types of youth tourism are its active forms.

Adventure tourism brings together travel, or otherwise associated with a risk to health and life. Extreme tourism - alpinism, mountain and ski travel, scuba diving and generally anything that carries high risks.

Extreme tourism sometimes called the rejection of technologies like browsers and phones. These tourists are one-on-one with the natural conditions and surviving using a minimal set of tools – matches, knife, canteen. Largely they rely on their knowledge of natural phenomena, properties of plants and mushrooms. Travelers should know how to avoid the dangers associated with wild animals.

Sports tourism is a sport based on overcoming the great distances and natural obstacles. Aimed at the physical development of man and the formation of stamina.

podvizhnoe stranstvie

Adventure perfect for fans of new sensations. It implies active interaction with the environment – in the adventure tourism cannot be just an observer. These include balloon trip (balloon tours), parachuting, hang gliding, bungee jumping on a rope attached to his belt, climbing.

Ski tourism - holidays in the snowy mountains that allow skiing. This kind of tourism is popular in winter. Has a therapeutic function – the mountain air and exercise has a beneficial effect on a healthy person. Associated with getting new impressions and requires athletic skills.

The growing awareness of people about the state of the environment has led to the development of ecological tourism. Ecotourists travel to the places least affected by human factors, the norms of nature protection, and part of the income from these tourists is the preservation of these places.

The main purpose of ecotourists – the contact with nature, the involvement of local residents in tourism programmes, creating a further incentive for preservation of natural features.

New items

The tourism industry is developing every year, and, as a consequence, new types of tourism. Here is a small list that appeared recently:

  • Esoteric – journey to self-development and self-knowledge, the search for the meaning of life, revealing your identity and broadened Outlook;
  • Space – associated with the development of space technologies, but it is expensive and available only to a limited number of individuals. it is important For him to have not only money, but also good health;
  • Christmas and the wedding is organized in accordance with the desires of vacationers to mark significant events;
  • Sex tourism – travel in search of new sexual experiences.

Interesting video about the most unusual kinds of tourism: