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Photos and description of ancient Indian temples: Lotus, Khajuraho, Shiva, Rats

indijskie hramy

India is called the country of many faces, because to be an unambiguous representation is impossible. Especially if we are talking about cultural heritage, which are from ancient times ancient Indian temples.

Top 10 most popular temples - photo and description

Each of the temples – the page of history, a part of the rich history of the country and the people who have something to say to future generations.

Taj Mahal

arhitektura Tadzh-Mahala

None of the popular tourist itinerary is complete without visiting the legendary Taj Mahal. Joined in 2007, the ranks of the new seven wonders of the world famous mausoleum-mosque impresses visitors not only stunning architecture but also a romantic history, which is rooted in the 17th century.

The Taj Mahal is a monument of lovebuilt by the Mughal king Shah Jahan in honor of his beloved wife, the beautiful Mumtaz died at the birth of 14th child.

In memory of the beloved, Shah Jahan built a fabulous Palace, which was buried spouse and after a time he found eternal rest.


The marble walls of the mosque during the day change color:

  • by day, the building shines white;
  • in the light of the moon, the building glows with silvery shades;
  • at dawn, the Palace became scarlet.

Complete the architectural ensemble of gardens with ponds and fountains. There is a legend that Shah Jahan planned to build an exact copy of the Taj Mahal in black marble on the opposite Bank of the river, but, dethroned by his own son, did not have time to do so.

Lotus

obitel Lotosa

The name of this temple reflects its appearance – the building is of white marble with 9 entrances and a single dome resembles a drop-down Lotus flower with 27 petals, admire you can, visiting the capital of India, new Delhi.

Lotus temple erected for the followers of Baha'i in 1986 and conform to the dogmas of Scripture: devecioglu shape and a dome, symbolizing the unity of all religions (temple receives supporters of different faiths).

75-meter main hall can find no altars, images or sculptures, but there are benches on which to simultaneously indulge in prayers can 1300 people.

The building of the Lotus temple has the features of another famous structures – the Opera house in Sydney. It was he who inspired the architect Fariborz Sahba for the creation of such structures.

Shiva

Regardless of the time of day and day of the week in the Shiva temple in Goa is always crowded. Hurry to pilgrims from around the world to pay tribute to the most revered deity of the warlike Shiva.

The architectural complex is a building of colored granite, flanked by statues of elephants.

In the temple there are figures of various deities from the Mahabharata, and is also the world's largest statue of Shiva, a height of 37 meters. During religious festivals the priests in the temple elephants decorated with colors and flowers, symbolizing the son of Shiva (Ganesha).

In India it is believed that the blessing of these sacred animals brings good luck.

Rats

pristanishe krys

But not only elephants are revered in Indiaanimals. In the village of Deshnok in North-West India built Hindu Holy temple of Karni Mata (the earthly incarnation of the goddess Durga), which became a nursery for rats.

There is a legendaccording to which Karni Mata tried to revive drowned his stepson, asking for help to God from the Pit. Having been refused, the Saint had done to all men after death occupy the bodies of rats and were born again people.

This temple is home to over 20000 rats, which created all the necessary conditions: high and low are filled with food and milk (some pilgrims are taking the food from this cookware with the animals), there are places to stay.

Hindus believe if a rat will run through the legs of the person is guaranteed success in life.

Gold

The Golden temple - is the oldest of the temples built by the Sikhs, it is surprising not only scales, but also rich decoration. Only on the lining of the case took more than 100 kg of gold! But most of all, the Golden temple in Amritsar is famous for the"Lake of immortality", whose waters wash the walls of the building and are considered healthful.

The legend says that the proud Princess refused to marry the man chosen by her father, was given in marriage tramp, sick with leprosy. After a dip in the lake, the young man became handsome and has managed to conquer the impregnable heart of a girl.

The Golden temple has four entrances on all sides of the world, but to enter it on the only bridge leading across the lake. It is believed that the path of this road allows you to be cleansed from sin and receive the blessing of the gods.

The sun

The temple of Surya at Konark, known as the Sun temple resembles a huge chariot, to which the Supreme God was moving across the sky. Total building has 6 pairs of wheels connected by an axle, which carry symbolic meaning.

Two wheels is the earth and sky, male and female, United by a close relationship – the marital Union. Perhaps that is why the temple is decorated with numerous statues of men and women, indulging in carnal pleasures. However, nothing in common with fornication or sin sex scenes are not. It is a ritual process whose main purpose is procreation and attracting the mercy of higher powers in relations of spouses.

Meenakshi

stroeniya Minakshi

The word "Meenakshi" in Tamil language means "ribella". In Ancient India the winner of the bulging eyes was considered a standard of female beauty.

This feature had the goddess Meenakshi, consort of Lord Shiva, the wedding which, according to legend, took place in the Central temple town of Madurai.

The temple complex in South India in the form of a huge diamond with 14 gate towers began to carry the name of the goddess Meenakshi, and numerous statues and drawings on building walls depict scenes from the couple's life and the miracles performed by the Almighty Shiva. Special attention deserves the "Pond with the Golden Lotus", which "washes away" even the most grievous sins.

Akshardham

Among architectural structures, trapped in the Guinness Book of Records, the Hindu temple complex of Akshardham in Delhi is the greatest place in the world.

Meter building istopped with 9 domes and is decorated with 243 columns, located in a picturesque Park on 12 acres of land. On three sides it is surrounded by a lake, which collects water from all the reservoirs of India. In addition, the temple complex includes:

  1. many sculptural ensembles;
  2. light and music fountain and a movie theater;
  3. an indoor canalwhere you can ride on the boat;
  4. cozy cafes;
  5. souvenir shops.

Somnath

The Somnath temple located in the eponymous town on the shores of the Arabian sea, is famous for the fact that here is one of 12 of jyotirlingam (shrines) of Lord Shiva.

Legend has it that the Cathedral received its name from the moon-God, Soma, saved Shiva from the curse. On the spot healing Soma raised up his Savior, the temple of pure gold, but precious decoration attracted people with evil thoughts, and several times the Church was looted and partially destroyed.

zdanie Somnath

In 1950 on the basis of archival documents the temple complex has been restored and is now a spacious structure in the rock with a 50-meter tower and a small Park area, where you can admire the spectacular sunsets over the sea.

Jagannath

Pilgrims from around the world gather in Puri, located in Eastern India, to visit the Jagannath temple, where according to legend, 4000 years ago, was cremated the body of the God Krishna. Despite the enthusiasm of visitors, the entrance to the temple is allowed only to Hindus. To look at forbidden territory is possible only from the Windows of the library opposite the temple complex.

People of other nationalitiesaccess to the temple only opens once a year in July, when the territory of Puri hosts the annual chariot festival Ratha Yatra.

Unusual temple complexes

Every Indian temple has its own interesting history and unique "flavor" in the architectural decoration, but there are those that seem to be completely non-standard.

Khajuraho

One of the most unusual in the world is the temple complex of Khajuraho (it is also called the temple of carnal pleasures, or the temple of the Kama Sutra), located in the eponymous village in the state of madya Pradesh.

Hidden from the prying eyes of the evergreen jungle, the ritual, the ensemble literally captured the imagination of the first Europeans got there – almost all the buildings of the complex were completely covered with reliefs depicting copulating men and women with different poses. The complex of Khajuraho immediately received the status of the most erotic places on the planet, and in madya Pradesh reached the crowd of curious.

There was even a version that these love scenes formed the basis of the famous Kamasutra.


sooruzhenie Khadzhuraho

According to one of myths, the moon God seduced a beautiful maiden, with which they have given rise to a genus of their. But without the bonds of marriage a girl was considered a sinner, and after her mother died, her children began to hear in his slander and gossip. To make amends, it was decided to build a temple in honor of the parents decorate it and erotic scenes symbolizing the sacred Union between God and an earthly woman.

Sree padmanabhaswamy

Stories about ancient treasures, anyway, is full of chilling details. No exception history of the ancient Sree Padmanabhaswamy temple, built on the site of Thiruvananthapuram (capital of Kerala), which is a repository of untold wealth of the Maharajas.

Erected in honor of the God Vishnu, the majestic Cathedral with tridtsatimetrovoy Semiradsky tower and lots of amazing statues on the right is the status of an architectural masterpiece. But not even that attracted world attention.

In the main hall of the temple is a statue of Lord Vishnu made of pure gold, inlaid with precious stones, and in the basement of a building a few cameras was discovered ancient treasures a total value of 20 billion dollars!

Well-known Indian lawyer in 2009, appealed to the Supreme court to take an inventory of the jewelry and provide them the necessary protection. However, shortly after the opening of the treasures of the lawyer died suddenly, giving a reason for rumors about a ruthless quads of the God Vishnu in disturbed sleep.

Standing monks

This place cannot be called a Church in the truest sense of the word. The temple monks standing – not an architectural structure, but rather, the area where trying to find spiritual enlightenment ascetics, doomed himself to voluntary suffering. Took the vow monks have the rest of your life to spend standing (in the pose Vrikshasana), symbolizing the tree.

Such a decision provokes serious diseases of the feet, causing them to swell so that they become similar to elephant. To preserve the upright monks, a special strap tied to a tree, and to drown out the pain helps the marijuana.

Many of the clergy are ex – cons trying to atone for his sins. After four years of this "service" they receive the title Hareware and can be free, however, to leave his post (whether from the enlightenment, whether because of physical weakness) could not be anyone.

Majestic Buddhist monastery

buddijskie peshernye svyatilisha

Buddhist temples can be called in different ways: the datsan, or is itself the name of the temple, combined with the words:

  • JI - is used if the name of the building is used by the glorification of the teacher or the name of a revered deity;
  • Dera or tera - if the Church is in area where it is located, or in honor of its founders;
  • Garan - is used to denote the ancient temples (from the Sanskrit "sangharama" is translated as "community dwelling").

Maharashtra

The Maharashtra state in Central India is famous for its caves and rock temples carved between 6th to 9th century.

  1. Ellora. In the area this village is located 34 cave structures of worship where religious rites were conducted by the Hindus, the Buddhists and the Jains. Modern researchers, for convenience, numbered the caves: the first 13 caves was occupied by the Buddhists, in buildings from 14 to 29 gods worshipped by the brahmanas, and the remaining 4 temple belonged to the followers of the teachings of Jainism.
  2. The [kaylasanatkhe]. Carved out of solid rock from the top down to a depth of 33 meters, the temple amazes with flawless execution.
  3. Mainly because of this and the effective protection of monolithic rock, the building is preservedto the present day in a satisfactory condition and included in the world heritage list of UNESCO.

  4. The Caves Of Ajanta. The cave temples of Ajanta are the cultural heritage of the Buddhists. Created during the existence of the Gupta Empire the Golden age of India (4-6 centuries), these temples were carved into the rocks and decorated with frescoes and statues.

    Hidden from prying eyes in the jungle, they have long remained inaccessible to the General public, and only in 1819, the Ajanta caves have been cleared and are open to the public.

  5. Pitalkhora. In the North-West of Maharashtra near the city of Aurangabad is a temple complex consisting of 13 Buddhist caves Dating back to the 2nd Millennium BC, the largest of the preserved architectural ensembles of Theravada Buddhism. Unlike previous Buddhist temples, facades decorated Pitalkhora more bright and detailed.
  6. Junnar. This city, located near Gore Sahyadri (in Maharashtra), also widely known, thanks to the small cave temple complex: Tulija Lena, Manmade hill, Ganesh Lena (Lenyadri), Shivneri.

    In the I century BC, Junnar was the capital of the country, as in the valley of the river Kaladi in the vicinity of the city held an important trade route. Buddhist monks tried to build the monastery around such settlements, so to the present day remained small cave temples.

Mahabodhi

territoriya Mahabodhi

The status of the most famous Buddhist temple in the world belongs to Mahabodhi temple (the second name of the Mahabodhi Stupa), as it is at this point Siddhartha Gautama attained enlightenment, became the Buddha. The building was rebuilt several times and changed the face – the original version can be seen on the bas-reliefs of the Stupa in Bharhut.

Sanchi

The village of Sanchi in the state of Madhya Pradesh attracts tourists wanting to take a look at ancient Indian temples of Buddhists. So, in the year 262 BC, the Emperor Ashoka, redeeming the blame for the disasters of the Kingdom of Kalinga, became a Buddhist and built on the hill of the Great Stupa at Sanchi.

Subsequently, around the Stupa No. 1 was built 7 such temples of different sizes – in 1989 they joined the world heritage List of UNESCO.

Orthodox churches

Is in India and followers of Christianity, but churches dedicated to this religion in the country a little.

The Holy Apostle Thomas

The best known among the Christian churches of India became a temple of the Holy Apostle Thomas in Chennai (the administrative center of Tamil Nadu).

Legend has it that during the life of the Apostle Thomas was able to heal people (to heal lepers, to regain sight and hearing, to cast out demons), and even resurrect from the dead. Persecuted by local brahmin for preaching Christianity and the baptism of local residents, Thomas was stabbed with a spear while praying at the hand-hewn stone cross. In this place, and had erected a Church in honour of the Holy Martyr.

To our days in the cave preserved the stone with the footprints and blood stains.

It is believed that the trace arose from the touch of the Apostle Thomas, and if you put the hand to this place, deliverance will come from illnesses and luck in life.

Greek Orthodox Church

Founded in 1871 in Calcutta, Greek Orthodox Church initially was the domain of the elite, and only in the eighties of the last century was opened to parishioners of all social strata. Over time, the temples were opened in Arambare, and the priests began to carry out missionary work in the surrounding villages, opening clinics, schools, orphanages and helping the poor and disadvantaged.

What are the names of abandoned shrines in Orchha?

nazvaniya zabroshennyh zon v Orchhe

Some noteworthy churches and cathedrals, located in the heart of the medieval town of Orchha on the river Betwa. Translated the town's name sounds like "lost place" (during the reign of Shah Jahan the settlement lost its sign and was abandoned). Perhaps due to the remoteness from civilization, well preserved to our days and the town and temple buildings of the middle ages.

  • Raj Mahal. Built by the founder of Orchha, Prince Rudra by Pratap Singh, the Palace of Raj Mahal has got a square shape and was divided into two courtyards. Researchers call it a Prime example of Mughal architecture.
  • Jahangir Mahal. This Palace is widely known not only because of external splendour (elegant domes, terraces, balconies and stone statues) and its unique features – the building, built in 1606, has the same number of floors above ground and underground.

    The temple was built on the orders of Raja bir Singh Deo to commemorate the visit of Jahangir, the new Emperor of the Mughals, whom he helped ascend to the throne.

  • Rai Praveen Mahal. Raja Indramani built this Palace in 1675 for his concubines. Beautiful Rai Praveen was not only handsome, but also talented – admired popular rumor about the girl walked up to the Emperor Akbar, who invited her to Delhi. But realizing that beauty truly loves his master, sent her back to her lover.
  • Lakshmi Narayan Temple. Completes the architectural complex of palaces in Orchha, the unique temple, developed in 1622, after the goddess of wealth and prosperity Lakshmi. Built in the shape of a triangle, the structure combines the features of a house of worship and a fortress. Fortification architecture successfully combined with the elegance of a Hindu temple, and Lakshmi Narayan temple is world famous for exquisite ancient frescos.

Enigmatically and beauty of Indian temples (some of whose names sound mysterious) will allow you to touch the culture and traditions of the country and with the most pleasant impressions to take home a piece of authentic India.

See a fascinating video about temples of India: