The inhabitants of the fauna (animal world) the Black sea: the name of the poisonous fish
The black sea is very unusual distribution of living organisms. At first glance it seems that the waters are teeming with fish, animals and other creatures, but they occupy only 13%, that is, the fauna of the Black sea is located to depths of 200 meters. This zone is called oxygen.
Next there is a hydrogen sulfide area – a huge empty living space. This part takes the remaining 87% of water.
A small variety of flora
The black sea is different, the relative poverty of flora and fauna, this is due primarily to the low salinity, low temperature and large amount of hydrogen sulfide.
Flora of the Black sea includes 270 different species of algae. Among them, multicellular, brown, green, red, bottom algae.
There is a species of algae, eating only organic substances, but most still feed on the way of photosynthesis.
Among the representatives of the plant world include:
- Nochesvetka or noctiluca. This seaweed is a predator, it does not have chlorophyll. Its name it received because of the glow in the dark;
- Cladophora. These green algae resemble branching shrubs that reproduce sexually and asexually. There are about 200 species of Cladophora;
- Ceramium transparent. It belongs to the family of red algae. Is a small algae filamentous forms. Looks like bulk cotton caps;
- Enteromorpha. Basically it grows in polluted areas near the shore. Enteromorpha grows as a greenish tubes with bubbles inside;
- Cistozira. This brown benthic algae is a valuable source of sodium alginate, which is widely used in the textile industry and as a thickener of paint. In the Bush Cistozira live small marine animals like mussels and worms;
- Phyllophora. Refers to red bottom algae. Raw Fellatory successfully used in confectionery and medical industries.
- Ulva. Double layer of green algae growing at great depths;
- Zostera. Grass, which have adapted to life under water. Is a perennial Tsvetkov plants. The Zostera is used as stuffing for upholstered furniture.
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The fauna of the Black sea
Of course the fauna of the Black sea are less diverse compared to the Mediterranean or Red sea, but still there is something to see. On the territory of the Black sea there are about 2500 different species of animals. Among them, the commercial representatives, such as: mullet, sprat, anchovy, mackerel, perch, bream, mackerel, herring, sturgeon. At the bottom of the sea are mussels, clams and oysters.
Species of fish photos and names
The most striking representatives of the fauna of the Black sea:
- Herring. Refers to a large family of herrings. Herring is a schooling fish, feeds on plankton, it rarely survives until the age of 25-30 years, as is common prey for predators and anglers. Herring meat is tender, fat and tasty, which is why it is in high demand.
- The red mullet. It belongs to the family borbulevich, of the order Perciformes. Length usually not over 45 cm Fish has a bright red color and a small mustache. The taste of the delicate fish. Its meat is highly digestible, rich in proteins and vitamins, is considered a delicacy;
Gobies. The fish got this name because large as a bull's head. Belongs to the family of Perciformes. In the Black sea there are more than 10 types of bulls. Gobies feed on small fish and molluscs.
Fish has a special structure of the fins, allowing it to cling to stones, so no of course it is not terrible. Gobies are sedentary;
- Zelenushka. This is a schooling fish that hasvariegated color. Feeds on crustaceans. Dwells zelenushka mostly overgrown with algae rocks;
- Flounder. This flat fish of the flatfish family is different tapered body and positioning of the eyes on one side. Due to this structure, the body she easily buries and disguises itself in the sand. Flounder feeds on crustaceans and bottom fishes. The meat of the flounder is white with characteristic odor. Some people don't like to cook flounder because of this, but the smell can be easily eliminated by removing the skin before cooking;
- Fish-beggar, or whiting. Representative of the cod family. A small pack, but very voracious fish. Eats everything that comes his way. In the cold swims closer to the shore, and in the heat, sinks deeper down;
- Fish-needle. This amazing fish really looks like a needle. It has a long slim body. Fish hunt in packs, typically near shore.
- Bluefish. Predatory marine fish squad okuneobraznyh. Life expectancy is 8-9 years. Does a fish have sharp teeth and powerful jaws. Bluefish feeds on other fish, like mackerel;
- Swordfish. This fish from the order Perciformes can reach a length of 4 meters. She can move at speeds up to 130 km/h swordfish is a very valuable trophy. Meat from fish is very tasty and almost boneless. This is why swordfish is so prized among fishermen. To experience the charm of taste, this fish is often eaten raw, put slices on lettuce leaves and watering with lemon juice;
- Sea bass. This deep sea fish is belongs to the family of scorpionfish. Groupers are very different in size. Their length varies from 20 cm to 1 m. Bass prefer cool water at a depth of 100 m. Due to its taste, grouper is one of the first places in sales of all marine fish.
- Gold fish. The fish is not large, belongs to the family Cyprinidae. There are many types of goldfish, they differ in color and size. These fish are mostly kept in aquariums, because they are extremely beautiful and quite unpretentious.
During the war the inhabitants of the coast of the Black sea fed bulls, they were called breadwinners, and in Berdyansk the bulls was even a monument.
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Poisonous representatives of the deep sea
There in the Black sea and poisonous creatures which you should avoid:
- Katran - barbed shark. The fish grows up to 2 metres and can weigh up to 14 kg. it is believed that this fish has the habit to attack people, but still is wary of her in the evening. The dogfish swam to rocks near the shore and can harm people, as the fins on their backs are poisonous, and the body covered with spines;
- Skorpena. Externally, the fish is similar to the conventional brush, so got the second name - "sea ruff." Skorpena is covered with poisonous spikes in the injection of which, a person experiences severe pain and after some time may have a fever. In the future on the pricked area of the body a tumor. Though deaths from encounters with scorpenes not fixed, try to be careful of these fish;
- Weeverfish. Sea dragon looks like an ordinary bull, but under the inconspicuous appearance hides a real danger. The poison of these fishes accumulate on the spikes that are found on the gills and in the head. During an injection, the affected area swells quickly, there is a very strong pain, fever, chills. The venom can cause swelling of the lungs and disrupt the heart's activity;
- Sea cow. Fish also has thorns but the danger is not in them. Sea cow is covered with slime, touching it can cause severe burns. The fact that the fishermen quite often confuse this fish with the same bull. In case of defeat should be treated the burn with hydrogen peroxide and go to the nearest emergency room.
When you lose you must treat the spot with hydrogen peroxide or simply rinse well, and then immediately bring the victim to the nearest emergency room.
Mammals in waters Black sea are presented in limited quantities:
Dolphins. In the Black sea there are three species of Dolphin is:
- bottlenose Dolphin (the largest);
These mammals live within 20-30 years. Females breed every 2 years and suckle young with milk. Dolphins are gregarious animals. The basis of the pack is the family, whose head is a female.
Dolphins are very intelligent creatures easily trainable, which is why they are in demand in the circus. There are cases of dolphins saving drowning people. So, these beautiful mammals have a special physical strength and amazing hearing;
- Monk sealor white-bellied seal. The onlyrepresentative of the pinnipeds in the Black sea. Seals eat shellfish, the most part of life carried out in water, where feel great. The number of monk seals is dropping every day, they are on the verge of extinction.
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Predatory and dangerous inhabitants
Shark. On the territory of the Black sea occurs only two species of sharks is:
- the cat shark.
Both individuals are of no danger to humans, though, and are predators. The lifestyle of these species of shark does not allow them to come near shore, but if you happen to meet a shark, do not be afraid and to panic;
- Jellyfish. In the Black sea common jellyfish species: Aurelia and kornerot. Jellyfish are often caught in a network at fishing, and they are almost impossible to separate. Not dangerous, Aurelia and kornerot can cause quite a burn;
- The ramp-hvostokol. The Stingray lives in sandy shallow water. He usually buries itself in the sand and becomes completely invisible. Therefore, it is easy to accidentally hurt. When you defeat the point of impact should be treated with hydrogen peroxide.
The ramp can hit the tail, with a blow so strong that it breaks even boots, and not so terrible a poison as the effects of shock.
The fauna on land
The fauna of the Black sea coast interesting and varied, this is due to the peculiarities of the climate. Among the predators found here are: leopard, bear, Jackal, lynx, Fox. Other mammals: deer, ROE deer, wild boars, hares, bats, otters. There are many different types of birds:
- the gulls;
But reptiles and amphibians on land, the Black sea, not so much. Among them are: turtles, lizards, toads and some snakes.
The black sea fishing - what fish is caught?
Fishing on the Black sea opens endless opportunities for the fisherman, because it is much different from the usual fishing on the river or lake. On a good day it is really to bring the catch to 5 kg and more. So, going on vacation be sure to take a fishing rod or spinning.
All the fish of the Black sea can be divided into 4 groups:
- Wintering in the Black sea, but spawning in the sea of Azov nagulivajut;
- Spawning and wintering in the Black sea but the Azov nagulivajut;
- Mastering the Black sea.
Edible fish in the Black sea is very diverse: anchovy, sprat, whiting, mackerel, mullet, spiny dogfish, anchovy, salmon, trout, gobies, flounder and many others.
Novice fishermen often wonder what kind of fish you catch in the Black sea. The catch may depend on the specific district and, of course, from the place of fishing (sea, Buna, or Bank).
- In the Crimea most often are caught: herring, anchovy, gray mullet, mackerel, perch, red mullet, sea bass, bluefish and flounder.
- Off the coast of Sochi, the same usual catch is: Barborka, gobies, calarca, mackerel and bluefish.
- Fishermen Anapa can boast a catch of horse mackerel, sea bass, bluefish, herring, red mullet and Gar.
In other fishing beautiful in all black sea cities. And the flora and fauna of the Black sea and its coast deserves special attention.
On vacation is a must see not just sandy beaches and their inhabitants, but also underwater life of the Black sea.
We encourage you to watch a video about the inhabitants of the Black sea: