Are seaports in the Northern region of Russia, the largest in the world?
The world championship in freight turnover belongs to Maritime transport, the reason for this is the cheapness and availability of marine and inland navigation, and the ability to transport very large cargoes in large volumes. Daily to the sea tens of thousands of ships connecting different countries and continents of our planet.
In order to maintain a huge trade and turnover, the world's leading countries are building the largest ports in the world able to accept and service many ships of all types, from container ships and tankers to passenger liners.
The size of the ports is determined by their turnover, which is estimated in millions tons of cargo or container throughput, measured in TEUs — 20 foot equivalent, implying a standard container for shipping.
The difference in positions can be explained by the fact that some ports spetsializiruyutsya on the transport of containers, the other at the reception of bulk vessels, primarily oil tankers.
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In the ten largest sea ports in the world container all ten are located in Asia, nine of them are in the Pacific basin, and seven belong to China. So we can state that the economic centre of the world in our time, finally shifted to the far East.
The largest ports of world container throughput is now located in China — home "workshop of the world", and this is where the generated traffic is distributed to the whole world.
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By the end of 2015, the port of Shanghai finally overtook Singapore and became established in the first place by turnover (646,5 million tonnes) and container throughput (TEU 36.5 million). You'll be within the vicinity of the major Chinese metropolis. To help to occupy first place in the world by turnover the port of Shanghai has helped introduced at the beginning of the XXI century the port of Yangshan deep — water part of the Shanghai harbour.
The port of Singapore is behind Shanghai, but ranked second by turnover in the world. Unlike other harbours of the top ten ports of the world Singapore does not generate cargoes and is a transit point on the way of goods from China and countries of South-East Asia to other countries.
Singapore is connected with 600 ports in 120 countries of the world. It was achieved due to the fact that the port has an advantageous geographical position, being located at the junction of the Pacific and Indian oceans. By the end of 2015, the port handled 30.9 million TEU.
Despite his young age (the city was founded only in 1979) port of Shenzhen is now ranked third in the world by turnover (24.1 million TEU). To achieve such results Shenzhen could due to the fact that it is the main port of the Delta of Pearl river — the fastest growing region in the world with a population of about 80 million people.
In addition to Shenzhen this region includes the largest Chinese cities: Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Dongguan, Foshan, and Macau.
All this sverrison served by many ports, some of which are also included in the ten most important in the world, but Shenzhen is the largest of them.
The port of Ningbo-Zhoushan is also located on the Pacific coast of China and serves the Central part of the country. This is one of the most polluted ports in the world, consists of 191 pier, oil terminal and jetty for the loading of iron ore. The container is about 20.6 million TEU.
In 2015, the port of Hong Kong handled cargo 20.1 million TEU, a drop in turnover for the year was 9.5%. The reason for this was that the main flow of goods in South China and the Pearl river Delta is redirected to Shenzhen and Guangzhou.
Also in the top ten largest ports in Asia were:
- Busan, South Korea (19.5 million TEU);
- Guangzhou, China (17.6 m.TEU);
- Qingdao, China (17.3 million TEUs);
- Dubai, UAE (15.6 million TEU);
- Tianjin, China (14 million TEU).
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Major European ports have long been lost to the palm partly Asian and American ports. However, now on the European continent is one of the largest ports in the world, and the development of continental river network allows you to have a major river port.
Cargo gateway to the sea
The main sea ports of the European continent are:
Rotterdam, Netherlands — once the largest port in the world, now occupies 11-e a place in the world (12.2 million TEU). The port began to develop in the second half of the nineteenth century after the development of the Ruhr coal basin, thus Rotterdam has become a transit point for the transport of coal from Germany to the continent.
Despite the fact that globally, he fell out of the top ten largest, the port of Rotterdam is the largest in Europe.
Antwerp, Belgium, ranks second by freight turnover in Europe (9.6 million TEUs). The port of Antwerp, its area exceeding that of the city itself 4 times, for several centuries was the largest port in Europe, which receives cargoes from all over the world, primarily from America. Now the port, dubbed the "supermarket of Europe", ranked second on the continent.
Despite the fact that Antwerp is the title of the seaport, it is located on the river and direct access to the North sea has not.
Hamburg is the main German port, and the third on the continent (8.8 million TEUs). The port of Hamburg is called "Gateway of Germany to the world" and is one of the city's main attractions.
The port itself is located at the mouth of the river Elbe, about 100 km from the coast, but it has long been considered a seaport. In the middle ages it was part of the Hanseatic League, and the current official name of the city the Free and Hanseatic city of Hamburg, and all these titles are connected with the city port.
- The port of Bremerhaven, which means literally "Bremen's harbour" is a port on the North sea coast in Germany. The fourth largest port in Europe (5.5 million TEUs).
- Valencia, Spain ranks fifth among the largest ports of Europe. Located on the Western coast of Spain, the port handled of cargo in 2015 to 4.6 million TEU.
The total area of the port of Rotterdam is 105 km2, and along the North sea coast, it stretches for 40 km.
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The largest ports of Northern Europe are Rotterdam, Antwerp, Hamburg and Bremerhaven. On the Mediterranean coast of southern Europe stand out: Valencia, Algeciras, Barcelona (Spain), Trieste and Gioia Tauro (Italy), Marseille (France) and Piraeus (Greece).
The main harbours of the Baltic sea are: Gdansk (Poland), Ventspils and Riga (Latvia), Klaipeda (Lithuania), Stockholm (Sweden) and Kiel (Germany). On the coast of the Atlantic ocean are highlighted in Le Havre (France), Cardiff (UK), Dublin (Ireland), Porto (Portugal), Vigo (Spain).
From a practical point of view, and Rotterdam, and Antwerp, and Hamburg — that river ports, but due to the fact that they are located at the mouth of rivers near the sea coast they considered to be seaports. The main river in terms of turnover is not the Volga and not the Danube, and the Rhine, so the largest inland port is Duisburg, Germany, serving the Ruhr basin.
The other important river harbours are Liege (Belgium), Strasbourg and Rouen (France), Bremen (Germany) and many others.
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Due to the fact that Russia practically does not possess ice-free deep-water harbors and due to the continental character of the country, sea transport in our country is not as developed as in the main economic centers of the world. But in Russia's Maritime industry plays a decisive role in trade with many regions of the world, and some Russian ports are in the top of the largest harbours of the continent.
The North district belongs to the areas of the Atlantic and Arctic oceans. The major ports of this district are located on the Baltic sea. The largest seaports of the Northern district are:
- Ust-Luga (87.9 million tons);
- Primorsk in the Leningrad region (59.6 million tonnes);
- The big port of St. Petersburg (51.1 mln tons);
- Vysotsk (17.5 million tons).
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The main ports of the Barents sea are Murmansk (22 million tonnes in 2015) and Naryan-Mar.
Arkhangelsk - the largest Russian sea port of the White sea, is located 50 km from the coast at the mouth of the Northern Dvina.
The most important harbours of the Kara sea are Dikson, Igarka and Dudinka. However, it is planned that the most important port of this sea will be the construction of port Sabetta, which will become a transit point for transportation of hydrocarbons produced on the Yamal Peninsula.
The only harbours of the Laptev sea are Tiksi and Khatanga, which provides Northern delivery on the Northern sea route.
In the far East is home to some of the largest ports of Russia, linking this region of Russia with the countries of East Asia and with other countries. For a long time the championship belonged to the port of Vladivostok, but in our time, it surpassed other harbour and the Russian coast of the sea of Japan. Among the largest harbors of the Far East of Russia are allocated:
- port East in the Gulf of Nakhodka, Primorsky Krai (65 million tons in 2015);
- Vanino, Khabarovsk Krai (26.8 million tons);
- Nakhodka, Primorsky Krai (21.3 million tons);
- the port of Prigorodnoe, in Sakhalin region (16 million tons).
It is on the North Caucasus coast of the Black sea is the largest cargo port in Russia — Novorossiysk.
The turnover of 127 million tons. These figures do Novorossiysk is not only the most important harbour of the North Caucasus, but also one of the largest ports in Europe.
Also on the black sea coast stands out Tuapse (25.2 million tons) and the port of Taman, whose power is planned to reach a volume of 70 million tons annually.
The sea of Azov has one of the largest harbours of Russia is Port Kavkaz (30.5 million tons). Also important are the Azov, Taganrog and Temryuk.
The main river ports of Russia are located on large rivers:
- the river don (Rostov-on-don);
- Volga (Astrakhan);
- Northern Dvina (Arkhangelsk);
- Irtysh (Omsk);
- Enisey (Krasnoyarsk and Norilsk);
- Lena (Yakutsk);
- Amur (Blagoveshchensk and Khabarovsk).
River ports of Russia, as a rule cater to large enterprises, they are floating timber, as well as the supply of the Northern regions of Siberia and the Far East.
Also an important river port and is Moscow, after all, no wonder it is called the "port of five seas". Here there are three river ports (North, South and West).
Due to the geographical position, the sea Harbor of America belong to the basins of two oceans: Pacific and Atlantic. The Atlantic ports of America connect countries mainly to Europe, and the Pacific serve Maritime routes in East, Southeast and South Asia, and Australia.
The largest ports of the Atlantic coast of the U.S. container are:
- New York (6.3 million TEUs);
- Savannah, GA (3.7 million TEU).
Turnover among the Atlantic ports allocated to the main oil port of Texas Houston (212 million tons) and the port of South Louisiana in Laplace, which serves the import and export of agricultural products. This port belongs to the championship in the overall tonnage in the U.S. is 242 million tonnes.
On the Pacific coast, the main harbour are located in California:
- the port of Los Angeles (8.1 million TEU);
- the port of long beach (7.2 million TEUs).
Also important is the state capital of Washington - Seattle — 3.5 million TEU. Pacific ports primarily service the manufacturing trade with East Asian countries, so the measurement of their turnover comes mainly in conventional containers.
The main ports of Latin America located in Panama city in the waters of the famous canal linking the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. This is transhipment cargo other ship, so the main ports of the country of Balboa (3 million TEU) and colon (2.7 million TEUs) are the most important points on the world trading map.
Other important ports in Latin America are:
- Santos, vitória, são luís and Salvador (Brazil);
- Cartagena (Colombia);
- Veracruz and Tampico (Mexico);
- Buenos Aires (Argentina);
- Caracas (Venezuela);
- Valparaiso and San Antonio (Chile);
- Guayaquil (Ecuador).
The largest ports in Latin America is primarily focused on trade with the United States and East Asian countries, trade with European countries is much lower.
The main ports of the African continent included in the world's top havens, are at the North (Tangier) and the South (Durban)continent.
- The port of Tangier (Morocco) is located on the coast of the Bay of Gibraltar, connecting the Mediterranean sea and the Atlantic ocean.
- The largest ports are located in the economic leader of the African continent — South Africa, including Durban, Cape town and Port Elizabeth.
- Among the countries of Black Africa's major ports are Abidjan (côte d'ivoire), Dakar (Senegal) and Lagos (Nigeria).
- On the coast of the Mediterranean sea the most important ports are Damietta, Port said and Alexandria (Egypt).
See also the video about the major ports of the world: