The white sea: the water temperature in winter and summer (in July)
One of the internal seas of the Russian Federation is a White sea. Water temperature in summer does not allow it to swim, but to enjoy an unforgettable holiday is still possible.
Until the 19th century the sea had many names – Cold, Solovki, North, White Bay, and the Norsemen called the sea not only as snake Bay due to its winding shoreline.
The white sea on the map
The white sea is one of the miniature seas washing the Russian coast, below which only Azov.
The sea is located in the Northern part of the European region of the country and is in the waters of the Arctic ocean.
Bordered by the Barents sea – the sea divides the abstract line, stretched from Cape Svyatoy nos to Cape Kanin Nose.
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What country is between?
Sea is entirely located on the territory of Russia and washes the shores of the Republic of Karelia and Arkhangelsk region.
The white sea is surrounded by mainland and has a natural border. As little the North sea, it has its own characteristics.
What seas surround the Russian Federation, read in our article.
Area and bottom topography
The area of sea is about 90 thousand square kilometers, its maximum depth reaches 350 meters, and the average is 67 meters.
The bottom relief of the sea is quite complicated. The deep places of the reservoir considered as Kandalaksha Bay and the Basin, then towards the Dvina and Onega Bay there was a decrease of depth. The middle part of the sea - Onega Bay - has a form of depression.
The area called the Throat is a Strait between two peninsulas, it has a pretty rugged bottom and shallow depth that significantly impedes the movement of these waters of cargo vessels.
The greatest depth observed in the Western area of the Throat, where it reaches 50 meters.
The depth and dimensions of the area called Northern Cats varies depending on floods and storms. Next to them is Mezen Bay, characterized by numerous submarine banks, troughs and curves.
In General, the elevation of the reservoir bottom can be called uneven, changing weather data, with lots of underwater surprises, troughs and hollows.
Currents and salinity
Due to the hydrological features of the White sea, that is, a significant influx of freshwater rivers and lakes as well as water exchange with the adjacent Barents sea, the salinity is quite low – only 23 to 26 ppm. The salinity level in the deep waters a little higher – in some areas it may reach 30 ppm.
Currents in the sea are quite weak – their speed is less than one kilometer per hour. In the Northern area of the sea is observed for the white sea stock, carrying water from the White sea in the Barents sea.
On White the sea is a major sea port of Arkhangelsk and several smaller marinas. Read here about the largest sea and river ports of the world.
Inside the sea there are also so-called internal currents:
In the middle of the sea also noted the circular movementthat is directed counter-clockwise. This is due to the collision of several internal flows.
The sea ice extent
Despite the geographical proximity and the strong cooling of the waters in the cold season ice formation is distributed relatively shallow – 40-60 meters. In the area of the Throat ice cover extends a little deeper – up to 100 meters. This is due to the strong tides andtides.
When zaledeneli surface water underlying not stagnate, and actively mixed with the water coming from the area of the Throat. The salinity and density of water increases significantly.
Ice covers the sea in October, and in the area of the Funnel and Throat in January, off at the end of March to mid-may. The major part, about 80-90% is floating ice thickness of 30-40 cm, which over makes in the Barents sea.
So in the middle of winter often formed polynyas and thin young ice on water.
The formation of ice in the White sea dominates over melting, which significantly affects the thermal characteristics of the water. The stationary ice at the beach has a small area and does not extend beyond one kilometer from the shore.
Flora and fauna
The flora of the White sea includes about 200 species of algae, although as a whole the flora and fauna of the sea is much poorer than its neighbor – the Barents sea. This is due to more severe weather conditions and low water temperature.
However, fish sea world has about 59 species, among which stand out the cod, herring, saiga, flounder, sea horse, and saffron cod. In recent years, because of active trapping of the population of the seahorse has declined significantly.
In the White sea is also inhabited by corals of different kinds, clams, jellyfish, sea stars, ascidians, sea urchins and crustaceans creatures. From the coast you can find marine worms. At depths greater than 50 meters in the waters of the live the Arctic life forms.
Among the mammalsinhabiting the White sea, is to provide:
Some Russian ports are ice-free and thus bringing huge benefits to the country, read this article.
As for the sharks, here you can find a small in size but very aggressive and dangerous for human life of the spiny dogfish shark (or negatice).
In addition, in the White sea can swim a giant shark that is not dangerous, as well as herring and polar shark. On the border of the Barents and the White sea is the so-called sport fishing for sharks with a special tackle.
Climate and water temperature
The water temperature and climate in different seasons differ significantly from each other. Due to the geographical position and water exchange with the adjacent sea White features and marine, mid-continent climate. Also, climatic conditions affect the mid-Atlantic and European cyclones.
In the winter
In winter the White sea is cold and overcast. Temperature of water on the surface at this time is 0.5-1 degree Celsius in the bays of -1.5 degrees Celsius in the Pool and is 1.7-2 degrees Celsius in the area of the Throat.
The average air temperature above the water surface is-9-14 degrees Celsius. In the North of the pond a little warmer – there the air temperature is -6-8 degrees Celsius.
If the sea falls under the influence of the Atlantic cyclone, the air temperature can drop to 23–26 degrees Celsius.
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In the spring
In the spring after the melting of the ice water quickly heated up. In March, the temperature regime is kept at around 0 degrees Celsius, and in April - may the water warms up to +5-10 degrees.
In the summer
Summer weather on the sea is mainly cool, with moderate humidity. Mark water temperature in the area of the Kandalaksha Bay is equal to 12-14 degrees Celsius, in the area of the Pool +10-12 degrees Celsius and in the Throat and the Funnel temperature is much lower at +6-8 degrees Celsius.
In July, the temperature regime is equal to 8-17 degrees, but due to the influence of the European anticyclone it can change and rise to 20 degrees. Often in the southern areas the temperature rises to 30 degrees. In General, the weather over the sea is quite overcast and cool.
Relax to the White sea you can go by car. Here you will find popular routes of Russia and advice on road travel.
In the fall
In autumn the water of the sea cooled significantly and the differences between the different sea areas are erased. If in September the average water temperature is equal to 8-10 degrees Celsius, in October - November the temperature drops to zero.
It should be noted that deep water does not change its temperature depending on the time of year. On average, it can vary from +1 to -1.2 degrees Celsius.
What to do tourists?
Despite the harsh weather conditions, the White sea attracts many tourists and vacationers.Karelian nature pleases tourists for its landscapes, landscapes of unusual beauty, and rampant natural disasters.
Tourists to the White sea propose to do:
- sea fishing;
- hunting on wild birds;
- diving and underwater hunting;
- extreme downhill water kayaking and catamaran;
- boat trips on the fjord and nearby lakes, as well as on the Islands of the sea;
- the vicinity of forestsrich in mushrooms and berries;
- Safari on Quad bikes.
In addition, the sea attracts lovers of active leisure and researchers.
The white sea is also suitable for vacation with children – children can marvel at the marine life, to visit "the Three bears", as well as participate in archery combat. Also, anyone can enjoy dishes of marine cuisine, and in the period from July to September you can admire the famous white nights.
From this roller , you will be able to learn the history and throughout modern life of the White sea: