The sights of the city of Kronstadt with photos, description and map
Kronstadt is a mysterious abandoned FORTS, echoes of harsh military glory and romantic the expanse of the Baltic sea. Despite the fact that the city is already 20 years ago ceased to be closed, his visit is still colored a slight thrill of the forbidden attainment.
A little about the city
The port city of Kronstadt includes an island called Kotlin and several small Islands of the Gulf of Finland and the dam — a complex of buildings against floods, which stretches across the Bay for miles.
It is ring road, which connects the two banks of the Gulf and allows to reach the city by land.
The streets of the city are located to each other at a right angle.
Kronstadt is part of Saint-Petersburg and as a result has with him some similarities. The same humid climate, streets with eternally wet buildings, clean air Baltic, the charm of palaces, FORTS, temples and wharves.
From here went around the world 41 of the expedition, the Kronstadt sailors made 56 significant geographical discoveries.
- The main and primary attraction of the recognized Kronstadt Naval Cathedral of St. Nicholas (aka — Naval Cathedral of St. Nicholas), which is located on the Anchor square. Its glittering domes and crosses towering over the city, according to the creators was intended to be a sailors guide.
Large-scale building, whose prototype was Constantinople, the Hagia Sophia, was built from 1902 to 1913. A groundbreaking ceremony for the building was visited by the Emperor Nicholas II and his entourage, who together planted around the future of the Cathedral three dozen oaks.
The largest in the Russian Empire, the Cathedral was intended to be a monument to all the fallen sailors. On the walls of his galleries are 150 boards in memory of the marble on which are inscribed the names of prominent military and naval officers, clergymen, famous a bicentennial history of the Navy.
Externally, the architecture and interior decoration bear the stamp of the classic Byzantine style. Near the temple are two squares.
- Italian Palace is the oldest building in the city, the construction of which was completed in 1724. His eventful history has left in its interior nothing from the original Petrine Baroque.
For all time of its existence it managed to be the Palace of the 1st Kronstadt Governor, Prince Alexander Menshikov, the Palace of the Imperial family, the building of the Admiralty Board, Sea cadet corps, a Mate, and then the Technical school of the Navy Department, House of the red Army and Navy, theater...
Many other agencies have also for some time settled down in the Palace walls. Now there are TV and radio under the name "Kronstadt", marine gidrometeostantsiya, publishing house "Marine" newspaper "Kronstadt fortress" sailor's club, theater.
During all this time the building is much changed. The name assigned to him by the Italian style, recognizable in its look, which is now, after restoration. Nearby is the square, the monument to the Explorer of New Lands to Peter Pakhtusov. Opposite the Palace is Italian pond with dozens of fountains.
- In Kronstadt the Admiralty , the entrance for tourists is closed, but the external in the military simply by the grandeur of the famous building it is possible to enjoy. To transfer the Admiralty from St. Petersburg away in Kronstadt, decided Catherine II after a fire in the Petersburg building almost spread to the Winter Palace. Construction was slow, and with the coming to power of Paul I, the transfer of the Admiralty was abolished altogether.
But some buildings were completed: the plants. Production enterprises, shops, residential buildings, a Bypass channel around the perimeter, etc. Now the Admiralty complex occupies a quarter of the historic centre and is administered by the Ministry of defence.
- Gostiny Dvor , as usual in many cities, not just a huge space with kiosks, but a real architectural and historical monument of the XIX century.
He too fell to the ravages of fire. But afterrecovery only prettier, finding individual features, distinguishing it from the prototype — Petersburg Gostiny Dvor.
White and yellow building with columns is divided into two parts, between which only recently came through the passage. Massive two-storey building occupies an entire block.
Seating yard is so convenient for tourists that from here you can hand directly to several other attractions: the singing fountain, the monument to the 300th anniversary of the founding of the city of Kronstadt, Catherine's square on the bypass channel, as well as St. Andrew square with a chapel and a Cathedral of the Vladimir icon of the Mother of God.
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- Anchor square is a good starting point a study exploring the Kronstadt. This Central square is located between Admiralty, Marine Cathedral, a Bypass channel, here goes Sovetskaya street, here is one of the rare cast-Iron bridge.
- Dam — a famous complex of protective constructions (KZS), designed to prevent flooding. The place is so picturesque that has been featured in films, TV shows and music videos.
- The world's only original (not restored) cast iron bridge is located in the city centre. Located on a Hemp bridge that spanned through the Bypass channel.
- A water towerresembling that in 1804 it was here, in Kronstadt, the first in the whole of Russia water. The building surprises with elegant moldings.
- Petrovsky dock was the first in Russia innovative in Petrine times the dry dock. It was built for thirty long years by order of the great Emperor.
Its impressive bare brick walls with great care, and nearby you can see one of the oldest lighthouses in Kronshtadt.
When something is truly a breakthrough in engineering technology, now an abandoned dock.
- Fortress defensive wall — the little that is left of the Kronstadt fortress. Runs along the streets of the Rebellion.
- Mayak Tolbukhin is located on a rocky, artificial island, separated from the island of Kotlin. This is one of the oldest of the Kronstadt lighthouse. It was built by order of Emperor Peter the Great.
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If you prefer organized trips, you can take advantage of currency offers. It can be:
- Sea excursion to the FORTS of Kronstadt. It may be the FORTS of "Constantine", "Alexander I" (aka "Chummy"), "Reef", "Peter", "Count Milyutin", "Obruchev", "Totleben", "Kronshlot" and many others. During the tour you will be able to learn a lot not only from the history of these buildings, but also about the life of sailors on the Navy's life. You can also see the ships traveling on the St. Petersburg channel.
- It is also possible to carry out a boat trip on beacons of Kronstadt. This, in particular, the Bottom of the Kronstadt lighthouse shot (also known as Nikolaev flap gate lighthouse), the Rear flap gate lighthouse Maritime canal of Saint-Petersburg and many others. Under favorable weather conditions, some beacons can be planted.
- For those interested in the Orthodox sights, would be the actual tour of the temples. It is primarily Naval Cathedral of St. Nicholas and the Orthodox Cathedral of the Vladimir icon of the Mother of God and the recently restored stone Chapel of the Epiphany "Savior on Waters" at Kronstadt the gate. All of them are active.
- Came for the historical information interesting tour of the museums. Within it you can visit the Museum of history of Kronstadt, a Naval Museum, naval Kronstadt fortress. Also of interest are the marine Museum of the factory, Museum-apartment of the priest and spiritual writer father John of Kronstadt and the office Museum of the inventor Alexander Popov.
What else to see?
The Church Of St. Nicholas
The Church of St. Nicholas Lutheran Church, built in Kronshtadt in 1865-68. In the parish were Estonians, Finns and Swedes. However, the number of Lutherans continuously and very greatly reduced because of mass migration. And now the Church can be seen only in old photographs and postcards: in 1926 it was closed, the property was transferred to Kronstadt Finance Department, and the building was soon demolished.
- The summer garden was created by Emperor Peter I. the Park is located in the city's historical center, near the Makarovsky bridge over Petrovsky dock.
Its main Avenue many years ago became the first street in Kronstadt, it was originally the house of the Emperor with the flower beds and the Linden alley.
Here, in the Summer garden are monuments Midshipman Domashenko,ship the Oprichnik, granite slab dedicated to rear Admiral of the Russian fleet John Paul Jones, and "Oak Makarov".
- Petrovsky Park is located near Winter quay, where are the ships of the Baltic fleet and where it all began Russian voyage around the world. The Park was established on the site of the former Arsenal area, where once was held parades and reviews, and which at some point was abandoned.
Governor Bellingshausen their money on hired workers who dug drainage ditches and planted boobtrannie Governor of the seedlings. This garden was decided to break the Dutch style and in the centre a monument to the Emperor Peter I. So there is Petrovsky Park, earned the title of historic monument.
- Hospital garden appeared on the site of a dense forest — and also thanks to the efforts of Admiral Bellingshausen. After the construction of the hospital, much attention was paid to the landscaping. There appeared a bizarre intertwining of paths, and even herbs garden, where grown herbs.
The complex of buildings was expanded: there appeared a barracks, a bakery, a brewery (designed to treat people from scurvy) and other outbuildings, as well as a simple Playground.
Later a Church was built the chapel of St. Nicholas. The doctors cared for the garden that patients could walk in here and recover faster. Now the Park is a monument-obelisk Vasily Isaev, the chief doctor of the hospital, who was the first to chlorinate the water.
- Catherine square is along Sovetskaya street. Here you can see the monuments of Nobel laureate Peter Kapitza's square, Governor of Kronstadt Bellingshausen, the discoverer of the Antarctic continent.
From the Park overlook building a Sailing shop and a Pedestrian bridge to the square of Kirov (the former Osokin square) with the monument to Sergei Kirov. Here, on the street, there are houses, one of which was born the poet Nikolai Gumilev.
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By-pass (formerly the Admiralty) channel together with the lattice running along it, too, is a historical monument. He starts from the Italian pond and ends in the Kronstadt Harbor, runs along the buildings of the Admiralty. Through it spanned by several bridges (among them the famous Blue bridge). All of them many years ago, there was a detour, and now in Kronstadt there is only one drawbridge — Dock.
On one wall of the channel is a monument to a small fish, the stickle-back, through which in time of war the inhabitants of Kronstadt were able to survive the blockade.
Blue bridge is famous for the fact that one of its principles fixed transmitter, known as Kronstadt seamark. In the pavilion-the tower to the nearby tide gauge, a special automatic device-recorder, a continuously recording water level in the Baltic sea. From zero this seamark measured all the heights the former Soviet Union.
The eternal flame was lit on Kronstadt's Anchor square not so long ago — in 1984. It is located in the middle of the monument in the form of a pyramid of four parts. It was installed instead of a gravestone on a mass grave where they were buried seamen who died in the February and October revolutions.
Also here lie the remains of soldiers-sappers involved in the 1906 revolt and other tragic revolutionary battles.
Kronstadt must visit for those who love military romance and sea, and nice Peter and Catherine's time. The city is full of attractions, so any walk, on whatever streets she never ran, will be informative and impressive.
Sightseeing tour of the city in the following video: