Russia: what area is ice-free port of the Northern sea route?
Russia is the only country in the world, the shore of which is washed by 12 seas and 3 oceans. Such power cannot exist without a Navy. Sea freight has the lowest cost and very important to the economy of any country. An important role in cargo turnover play ice-free ports of Russia.
The main Wharf of the Northern sea route
In the existing registry of seaports of the country enabled ports 67, which are distributed in 5 basins.
Port of Murmansk - which area?
The volume of cargo handled sea port of Murmansk is inferior in the North-West, only St. Petersburg. Among all the Russian ports he ranked fourth.
Is a port in the Kola Bay, which belongs to the Barents sea.
Very often the Murmansk trade port called "gate of the Arctic". It is the largest shopping transshipment terminal Northern sea route. Every year through that Harbor is more than 30 million tons of various cargoes.
Murmansk port was built in the Eastern part of the Kola Peninsula in the Murmansk region before the appearance of the city. The choice of location for its construction was influenced by the following factors:
- the proximity of the flow of the Gulf stream;
- favourable climate.
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A very important factor is an indicator such as the depth of the channel of the Bay and its width. In the port can enter ships of any type, tonnage and size.
Until the construction of the port of Murmansk from Russia in this part of the country were the 2 major marine terminal. They were located in Arkhangelsk and St. Petersburg, both of them freezing at the onset of the first frost. Their work required the maintenance of the icebreaker fleet, which was necessary to spend large sums of money from the state Treasury.
Beneath the ice the waters of the Northern ports were quite a long time. The importance of building ice-free port in the North of the country reported at the time of the Russian Emperor Witte.
During the First world war, the fleet of Germany has blocked the passage of Russian vessels in the Baltic. It was a big problem for Russia, and forced the Emperor to begin construction of a port on the Kola Peninsula. Work on the construction of the port was started in 1915 and continued after the revolution of 17-th year.
The importance of an ice-free port in the North of the country was aware of all public figures. In the years after the revolution the construction of the port not only continued, but greatly expanded.
In WWII, the Murmansk port was the only link connecting the Northern part of the country with its European part.
In recent times, many countries interest in the Arctic development increases the importance and significance of the Murmansk sea port. For Russia, it has strategic importance.
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The port plays a huge role in the economy of the country and the region, and its turnover reaches 33 million tons per year. Goods arriving in the harbour from around the world, go to cities of the country by railway transport. Every year there is more than 220 thousand cars. The port works all year round seven days a week.
Well technically the Murmansk sea port has 19 berths. Its length is 4 km away. the Parking depth of the port is 14.2 meters in the roadstead from 20 to 60 meters. The area of open warehouses in the port 130 thousand square meters, closed — 21 thousand square meters. The total length of the railway port is 15.4 km away.
Shipping to Russia
Despite such a large number of harbours, some of them are ice-free and carry out navigation all the year round.
Most Russian ports are located in freezing seas.The navigation to them is not without piloting ships through ice. Currently, Russia has the largest icebreaker fleet in the world.
The duration of the "ice age" in the navigation is from 2 to 6 months. Most ports built in Russia in the Pacific. In this pool there are 24. The Barents sea has 2 port on the White sea, 6 in the Laptev sea - 7, on the Baltic sea — 10 on the Black and Azov seas of Crimea — 7, on the Caspian sea — 3.
It is noteworthy that still exist on the map of the country of settlement, accessible only by water.
What other sea gates are not freezing the list
To ice-free ports include the harbour, the ice transaction which required less than 2 months of the year. In Russia not so much. The main shopping ice-free ports of the country, in addition to Murmansk include:
The Port Of Kaliningrad. The only ice-free port on the Baltic sea. The harbour has a convenient geographical location. Within a radius of 400-650 km from Kaliningrad are the European capitals, Vilnius (Lithuania), Riga (Latvia), Minsk (Belarus), Warsaw (Poland), Berlin(Germany), Copenhagen (Denmark) and Stockholm (Sweden).
The total length of the berths is 17 km. The place of construction of the port was selected the North side of the Kaliningrad sea canal, which is an artificial hydraulic structure, and the mouth of the Pregel river.
Passage through the channel is possible only for vessels with Loa not exceeding 200 metres. Their maximum draught must not be more than 8 meters, with a capacity of 30 thousand tons.
The Port Of Novorossiysk. The largest port in Krasnodar regionwith the largest number of berths among all the harbours of Russia. They occupy 8.3 km of coastline. The place of construction of the port was selected ice-free Tsemes Bay of the Black sea.
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Navigation in the port may be interrupted only for the period coming from the North-East wind, known as Bora. It is for the courts in the winter time a great danger. To enter the inland waters of the port vessels having draught up to 12.5 meters with a load capacity of 250 thousand tons.
- The Port Of Tuapse. The second largest port in Krasnodar region. Can provide operations with hazard category 3 to 5 and grade 9. The port accepts vessels with draft up to 12 meters, a length of 250 m and a width of up to 44 m. it Has 7 berths.
- The Port Of Yeysk. The third most important commercial port in Krasnodar region. Located on the shore of Taganrog Bay, a part of the waters of the sea of Azov. Accepts vessels with a length of 142 m, width 18 m and draught up to 4 m.
- The Port Of Makhachkala. The largest commercial port on the Caspian sea. Has 20 berths with a total length of 2 km is Able to take vessels up to 150 m and with draft up to 6.5 m
- Vostochny Port. One of the largest commercial ports in the country located in the Pacific ocean. Built in Vrangel Bay, which is washed by the waters of the Gulf of Nakhodka related to the sea of Japan. The port is connected with the main territory of the country the TRANS-Siberian railway. Has 8 terminals and 25 moorings. Accepts vessels up to 290 m and a draft of up to 13 m.
- The Port Of Nakhodka. Located on the Northwest coast of the sea of Japan. The annual turnover of the port is more than 18 million tons of cargo. Accepts vessels up to 245 m and with draft up to 11.5 metres. Has 108 berths with a total length of more than 16 km.
- The Port Of Zarubino. Built in the South-West of Primorsky Krai in Trinity Bay. Is of strategic importance. Located at a distance of 70 km from China Hunchun port, and 65 km from Sanbona in the DPRK. Accepts vessels with length up to 130 m and draught up to 7 m.
- The Port Of Nevelsk. Built on the South-Western coast of Sakhalin island in the waters of the Tatar Strait of the sea of Japan. Has 26 berths with a total length of 2.7 km Accepts the vessels up to 120 m and draught up to 5.5 m.
- The Port Of Posiet. Located on the shore of the Posyet Bay, sea of Japan. Located South of Vladivostok. Has 16 berths with a total length of 2.4 km Accepts the vessels up to 183 metres and a draft of up to 9 meters.
- The Port Of Kholmsk. Located in the Tatar Bay of the sea of Japan on Sakhalin island. Has 27 berths. Their total length is 2.5 km away, and Accepts vessels up to 130 m and draught up to 8 m.
The total length of all the seven berths of port of Zarubino is 841 m.
In the number of ice-free ports of Russia are South of the harbour such items as: Temryuk, the village Pig (port Kavkaz), Anapa, Gelendzhik, Sochi and Taman. After the annexation of Crimea to the list of Russian ice-free ports added harbour, Kerch, Yalta and href="http://tour.liketourist.com/strana/rossiya/dostoprimechatelnosti-goroda-sevastopol/">Sevastopolya.
Commercial ports of the country are involved in export-import transportation of cargoes of various kinds. The big problem of the majority of Russian cargo harbours — the where the water is shallow.
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Of great importance are roadsconnecting the harbour with the different regions of the country. Each port has its own specialized purpose. For receipt and sending of each type of cargo berths should have the corresponding technical equipment.
- North-Western basin. Main ports of the region — Murmansk and Kaliningrad. Through these harbors are exporting oil, wood and metal, as well as imports of machinery, industrial and food products. They provide 90% of foreign trade turnover of the country. Summed up to all ports of railway and automobile transport interchanges.
South basin. Includes Harbor of the Black and Azov seas. The main port basin — Novorossiysk. The main oil exports pass through it and through Tuapse, Taman and Kavkaz seaport.
Among the export cargoesleaving the black sea — coal, metal, timber and building materials. Come to the ports, grain, sugar, industrial products and food.
In addition to cargo transportation, ports, resorts annually transports more than 30 million people. The port of the Caspian basin — Makhachkala carries out cabotage of petroleum products, salts, grains, fish and cotton.
Far East pool. Through ports of the Far East are export-import supplies of fish, petroleum, coal, machines, equipment, food and other goods.
The pool has its own marine railway crossing. It runs along the route Vanino-Kholmsk. Ports are connected with the regions of Russia TRANS-Siberian railway line.
In this part of the country is the Northern sea route that is crucial in the trade with the countries of Asia and America.
- For a country like Russia with huge territory and great trade potential, the number of available ports is considered to be insufficient.
- The port of Murmansk does not freeze even in severe frosts. This allows the port to accept and send cargoes by sea all year round.
- Murmansk is the only port in the North-West of the country, which can handle vessels with deadweight of more than 130 thousand tons.
- The total length of the Maritime borders of the country is about 40 thousand km But not one seaport failed to get even in the top 20 of the world's major harbors.
- The port of Novorossiysk is the third in Europe for its size and leader turnover among Russian trade harbours. Its capacity does not exceed 1 million containers per year, well below the world leaders.
Watch video about Novorossiysk sea port: