What river and why is the longest, deepest in the world: Amazon
Our entire planet is enmeshed in rivers, large and very tiny. And if you look at the map, it seems that a lot of rivers and they carry a significant portion of the total water on the planet. But it's not. Only 2.4% of the water falls on the river, or rather rivers and lakes. And all the rest is sea water.
And still play a huge role in creating the climate on the planet and less in people's lives. The most full-flowing rivers in the world are important not only for the region, where they are, but for the entire planet.
What is the longest and deepest river in the world?
The Amazon river is the deepest river on the planet, collecting 40% of the waters on the South American mainland.
Amazon occurs mainly in Brazil and partly in Colombia, Peru and Ecuador.
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The river is in South America. The origins of the Amazon located in Peru, in the Andes. At the height of 5 thousand meters merge two streams, Apacheta and Carricante, forming a small river to Loket. It took all his strength from countless creeks turns into the Apurimac, which literally falls from the mountains, then calms down and turns into the river Ucayali. And below it merges with the Maranon.
And then the river, called Amazon. At a height of 3.5 thousand meters Amazon gets to tropical forests. Here it breaks through the mountains, which often falls waterfalls. Finally, it is the Amazonian lowlands, where spreads widely on the plain.
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The Amazon flows eastward from the West and kept near the equator. Ocean-going vessels go up the Amazon in 1690 km to the port of Manaus.
The length of the river is 6992 km. The average depth is 70 metres. Most abounding gives for high speed, to 2.55 kilometers per hour.
Throughout its length the Amazon is repeatedly splits into several branches.
The catchment area reaches 7180000 km2, which is slightly less than the area of Australia. Its richness is due to:
- the presence of numerous tributaries (which flow into rivers, 15000);
- hot humid climate areas (the temperature here is about +25-27 degrees) through which it flows, and therefore, a large amount of precipitation;
- snow power at the origin;
- the lack of dry season in almost all reaches of the river;
- ocean tide, lifting water at the bottom of the river, the flow at 1400 km.
Amazon retains the richness of the whole year. Helps her in this is that floods right tributaries located in the southern hemisphere, occur at different times with the floods left from North.
When the river rises during floods, the flood large areas. This happens in March-may and lasts up to 120 days, the water rises up to 20 meters. The floodplain of the river is 100 km.
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On the territory of Brazil, the Amazon flows into the river Xingu, and on the width of the Amazon reach up to 15 km, it becomes like the sea. From one coast to see another is impossible. In addition, there are close to Atlantic, why there are tides. The bed of the river are innumerable sleeve, forming large and small Islands.
The Amazon basin has an area of 5 million square kilometers. This is a giant tropical forest called "the lungs of the planet".
At high tide the ocean waves rush into the river and demolished everything in its path. This is a unique natural phenomenon called a tidal wave Amazon. It is produced by the fact that the river mouth does not protrude into the ocean, and deeper into the mainland. Tides are driving the fresh water at the mouth again, lifting the shaft up to a height of 4 meters.
The Delta of the Amazon is the most extensive in the world. It occupies 100,000 square kilometers. Here is the largest on the planet river island can be reached, its magnitude is equal Scotland.
The Amazon river dumps into the ocean more waterthan all the rivers of Europe combined.
Amazon was discovered in 1542, when a group of Conquistador de Orellana started the fight with a tribe of Amazons. Now historians believe that it was an Indian tribe with long hair. But whatever it was, a Conquistador who wants to call open them river his name, he changed his mind and named her after the mythological tribe of warrior women.
On every continent there is a river beyond the characteristics of the other.
Congo is the deepest river in Africa, but inferior to the length of the Nile. It flows through the territory of the Congo and on the border with Angola. Congo twice crosses the equator. The river was opened in 1482 by the Explorer Diogo Kahn from Portugal.
The origins of the Congo can be found in Zambia in the mountains MICOM BA at an altitude of 1600 meters. The basin captures 4014 square kilometers, and the channel extends 4374 kilometers.
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Early in the course of the Congo flows through the plains, in some places the river forms a lake-like expansion, sometimes the width up to 15 km wide sections alternate with narrow, one and a half to two kilometers. In the middle of the Congo is sandwiched steep banks and narrows to a mile. Downstream produces up to 70 rapids and waterfalls. This area is called the Livingstone falls.
Before the ocean formed a funnel-shaped sleeve. It flows into the salt water. Water of the Congo is also far away in the ocean, the current is noticeably on the yellow-brown color at 300 km And the water that the river dumps into the ocean, remains fresh on 75 km.
The Yangtze is the third most affluent in the world and the first in Eurasia. The river flows in China. Her pool captures 1808 square kilometers. The Chinese do not imagine their life without Yangtze.
The river begins in the Eastern part of Tibet at an altitude of 5600 meters. She repeatedly changes direction, creating numerous gorges in the mountains. The Yangtze river flows into Poyang lake, the largest in the country. Runoff in the Yangtze have 3 large lakes.
The Yangtze is one of the most challenging navigation of the rivers. Throughout the river there are three gorges, which are dangerous for ships.
Yangtze river carries its waters in the East China sea, creating a large Delta, covering an area of 80000 kilometers. On the territory of the great China plain it is divided into countless sleeves.
Throughout the entire course built a system of dikesthat protect from flooding coastal communities. Prior to this, the water in the summer, up to 20 meters. Repeated floods have claimed hundreds of lives and brought huge material damage. Water of the Yangtze river take for irrigation of rice fields.
The water in the river muddy color specific. Blame numerous impurities rising from the bottom. But the name of the river translates from Chinese as "blue". In the upper reaches of the river freezes in winter for a while.
The most full-flowing North American river – the Mississippi. It flows not only for US, but it hurts the pool and Canada. And in the US it covers 40% of the total area of the country. It is the third largest in the world pool.
The Mississippi flows from lake Itasca in Minnesota. The largest tributaries are the Missouri and Ohio. It flows through 10 States. The length of the river 3734 km of the Mississippi Delta captures the area 31860 km2. In the upper Mississippi flows through several lakes, overcoming the rapids and shoals, forming waterfalls, the great Saint Antony.
Geographers divide the river:
- Upper Mississippi;
- The Lower Mississippi.
The upper Mississippi freezes in the winter for 3-4 months. Lower Mississippi bottled in the spring. Although flood prevention dam built, they often cannot cope and the river floods the coastal areas.
The river has repeatedly changed its bed and the changing Delta. This is because the accumulating sediment makes the river to seek another channel.
Draining into the Gulf of Mexico, the waters of the Mississippi not immediately mix with the salt water, they separate thread are a long way round to Florida and even get into the Gulf stream.
The Mississippi was opened by the Conquistador Alonso Alvarez Pineda, who in 1519 went to the mouth of some great river. He called it the Big river of the Holy spirit. In 1682, the Frenchman Robert La Salle, has committed down the river, gave her the name Mississippi, which translated from the indigenous language means "big river".
Navigation on the Lower Mississippi after the falls of St. Anthony.
The deepest river in Australia – Murray. This is the only major river on the mainland. Its main tributary, the darling.
The Murray begins in the Australian Alps, mount Kosciusko, where it provides food, mountain snow pack. River basincaptures 12% of the continent. The length of the Murray 2375 km. It flows into the Great Australian Bay.
Although the river is considered the most affluent, but in fact she is shallow. Takes a lot of water to irrigate lands adjacent to the river. River is flowing from March to October when it rains. Then during the dry season the river dries up halfway. But for such a dry continent as Australia is a really big river.
The river found two runaway convict in 1824. It was called Yumaby the name of one of them. In 1829 the traveller Charles stern renamed it the Murray, the name of a British Minister of the colonies, George Murray.
The list is not less important waterways
Not to mention several full-flowing rivers of importance in the world:
- Orinoco - another champion of South America. A feature of the river is its richness, depending on the season. During floods, the river's width reaches up to 22 kilometers, and a depth of 100 meters;
- The Brahmaputra river flows through China, India and Bangladesh. Length — 2896 km This is the highest river in the world;
- The paraná flows through the South American country. Is the largest river on the continent after the Amazon;
- The Mekong is the longest river in the Indochina Peninsula. Supplies drinking water to the population of China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. The length of the river is about 4500 km, the basin area is 810 km2;
- The Yenisey is the most full-flowing river of Russia, flowing through the territory of Siberia. Length - 3487 km, the basin area - 2580000 km2. In ancient times, the Yenisei called "mother river";
- Lena is recognized as one of the longest rivers in the world. Flows through the territory of Russia, in the Irkutsk region and Yakutia, for which the waterway has a special significance - the river connects the Republic with the rest of the country.
Parana is fed primarily by rains. For this reason, the water level is uneven, floods and floods.
- Under the Amazon at a depth of 4 thousand meters, almost parallel to it, flows underground river Hamza. It is fed by groundwater.
- In the upper reaches of the Amazon called the Maranon, on its left name the source.
- Amazon is one of the seven natural wonders of the world.
- With the flow of sea water up the Amazon for hundreds of kilometers rise of sharks.
- Throughout the Congo river built hydroelectric power plants 40.
- The Yangtze at the origin of the long flowing next to another major river - the Mekong.
- Across the Yangtze built the world's longest cable-stayed bridge. Its length is 8 km.
- Mark TWAIN called the Mississippi "the great deceiver" for its ability to constantly change direction.
- If the upper part of Mississippi freezes in winter, the lower part is inhabited by crocodiles.
- One of the reasons that Murray has shoaled in recent years, the carp, which launched its water in an experiment, and rabbits. The fish ate all the algae, rabbits all the vegetation along the banks. Eventually the river became to shallow.
Another interesting rating is in this article on the basis of the purity and transparency of water in lakes around the world.
See also the video on the major rivers of the world: