The warm Pacific ocean average water temperature in the surface layer
Its name of the Pacific ocean bound Magellan. During the three-month transition in the fall of 1520, from Tierra del Fuego to the Philippine Islands he met in the ocean no storm.
This pool is considered to be among the warmest ocean waters, are inferior to him and the Atlantic, Indian and Arctic ocean, respectively. What is the temperature of the Pacific ocean?
Pacific ocean - what is it?
The Spaniard Vasco núñez de Balboa the Pacific ocean the name of "Great" is fully consistent with its scale. An ocean area greater than the area of the total land area of the planet for the whole Africa.
Despite its modern name, today the Pacific ocean is the most troubled.
For a long time on the maps of pre-revolutionary Russia the ocean was marked as the Eastern. The most powerful storms on the planet is born in its bowels.
From all sides of the ocean surrounded by a chain of submarine and surface volcanoes. They create seismic instability is the main cause of the giant waves. They can reach speeds of 700-800 km/h.
Read also our article about the best resort towns of Mexico, washed by the Pacific ocean.
Geographical location on the map
Pool Great ocean captures both hemispheres. With the Arctic ocean it connects the Bering Strait. In the East the Pacific ocean washes the shores of the two American continents. In the South it rests in Antarctica. With the Atlantic ocean it connects in the South-East of the Drake passage. In the South-West it merges with the Indian ocean. The widest part of the Pacific ocean located near the equator.
In ancient times across the Pacific ocean passed an important trade route and was operating a pirate squadron. Over the years, the role of Maritime routes in the Pacific has not lost its relevance up to the present time.
The first information about the ocean has accumulated due to swimming it of Magellan and cook. Beginning of serious study of the largest on the planet, the ocean pool put round the world voyage Krusenstern.
Currently, the study of the Pacific is engaged in the international organization.
The average depth of the Pacific ocean is about 4 km away. The deep place of the ocean is in the area of the Mariana trench, its depth exceeds 10 km. the water pool 710 million cubic km of Almost 18% of its area is the bays and the sea.
Ocean water freezes only in the Northern latitudes. Most of it is in the area of the equator, the tropics and subtropics. Off the coast of Antarctica in the ocean, you can find a large number of icebergs.
The bottom of the Pacific ocean has a mountainous terrain. It has a large number of volcanic formations. They form a chain that runs around the sea, around its perimeter. The number of seamounts in the ocean exceeds 10 thousand.
Every year in the pool, there is a shift of tectonic plates on 10-16 cm This increases the area of the ocean.
The most well-known underwater mountain range basin — Imperial mountain. It is covered by the waters of the Pacific ridge that has a length of 1.5 km. It extends under water from the Hawaiian Islands to Kamchatka. The North-Eastern part of Australia surrounds a Large Coral reef. It consists of more than 900 coral reefs and Islands.
The sea trade routes of the Pacific ocean play a huge role in world trade. The largest ports of the pools are in such countries as China, Singapore, Australia, Canada, USA and Russia.
Among the largest of the Pacific ports, built in Russia:
- The Port Of Vladivostok. Located in the Golden horn Bay. The depth of the approach piers— 30 meters
- The Port Of Nakhodka. Located in the Bay of Nakhodka. The depth of the external RAID is 28 meters.
And the largest and most famous sea and river ports of the Earth will tell you this article.
Among the largest foreign ports:
- The Port Of Shanghai. Located in the East China sea. Water depth at berths 11 metres;
- The Port Of Singapore. Located at the junction of the Indian and Pacific ocean. Water depth at the berths of 16 meters;
- The Port Of Vancouver. Located on the shores of the Strait of Georgia. Water depth at the berths is 16.8 meters;
- The Port Of Sydney. Located in the Bay of Port Jackson. Water depth at the berths is 13.7 metres;
- The Port Of Long Beach. One of the ports of the air force USA. Water depth at the berths of 17 metres.
Flora and fauna
The flora and fauna of the ocean is striking in its diversity. He is still not fully understood. Every year scientists are discovering it unknown to science species of vegetation and marine life. To date, there are over 100 thousand species. About 20 of them are deep. They live in the area of the famous valleys: the Mariana, Kermadec, Tonga and Philippine trench.
The Pacific ocean is the main place of seafood production. It produces almost half of the total world catch. The biggest fisheries in the waters of the ocean are maintained on anchovies, mackerel and sardines. Thrive in the waters of the ocean seals and various whale species.
Particular value are the pearls of giant clamsthat they produce. The weight of the large instance known to date, is more than 7 kg. Its appearance this pearl is like a man dressed in a turban.
Bottom vegetation of the Pacific has more than 4 thousand species. The most common ones are kelp.
Pacific horror called tridacna of giant clams that live off the coast of the Philippines. Their weight reaches a ton. Despite the horror that it causes the person, they bring the ocean a huge favor. Passing through a huge mass of water, saturate the seawater with plankton and oxygen.
Part of the ocean basin includes a large number of gulfs and seas. Among the important Straits and Panama. The most famous sea:
- South China.
Characterization and properties
The salt water of the ocean located off the coast of tropical Islands and continents. This is due to the small amount of precipitation that falls in these areas. The density of the salt is 35.5‰. The lowest salinity of the ocean is observed in the vicinity of cold currents in the Eastern part of the basin.
In the Northern seas of the Pacific ocean the density of salt in the water and is close to 0.
Nobody can say how many freshwater rivers and streams flows into the Pacific ocean. On the map you can see only the major rivers, of which there are about 40. The largest freshwater runoff into the ocean is considered to be the Amur river. Unlike the Atlantic and Indian oceans in a Quiet, not particularly salty seas such as the red or the Mediterranean.
All currents of the Pacific ocean divided into different groups. The most common division:
- North and South;
- warm and cold.
Warm currents can be found in the area of Japan. There flows the current, called the Kuroshio. One more warm stream can be detected off the coast of Australia and New Zealand. This group are South Equatorial, Equatorial currents. The most well-known cold currents of the Pacific ocean - California and Peruvian.
All currents have a direct influence on the temperature distribution on the surface of the pool. This determines the climate of the adjacent ocean areas.
The quietest area of the ocean is in the range from the Tuamotu Islands to South America. It took place the famous journey of Magellan. This is an area of light winds.
The strongest tides of the waters of the ocean can be observed from the Korean shores. In this area the difference in the levels is up to 9 meters. Korean on the opposite side of the level difference of tides is only 0.5 meters. Very rare to see calm weather to the West of the Tuamotu. In this part of the ocean blowing squally winds, hurricanes.
The most severe ocean winds , walking in December off the coast of Australia. The Northern part of New Zealand in the coral sea, partthe Pacific, in early autumn, there is a transformation of intense tropical cyclones to the warm West winds.
Why this area is the warmest?
The average temperature of the waters of the Pacific ocean is +19.4 degrees Celsius. This is the highest figure among all the oceans. Located in the southern latitudes of the Indian ocean colder than the Pacific on 2 degrees. Inferior to him and the Atlantic ocean, whose waters are North Indian.
Despite the fact that the temperature of the Pacific ocean is higher than in other waters, the warmth in the world is the sea belongs to the Indian ocean. Read here, what is this sea basin.
At first glance this phenomenon seems inexplicable. Because a significant portion of the Pacific ocean touches the Northern seas and Antarctica. According to scientists, largely on the water temperature in the Pacific have such factorsas:
- a large amount of water concentrated near the equator, the tropics and subtropics;
- a significant amount of algae, shellfish and other ocean dwellers.
The range of the maximum temperature in the surface layer of water is in the range from +30 to +3°C. temperature control of the waters of the ocean are atmospheric flows.
The maximum temperature of surface ocean waters is observed at the equator and the tropics. It is +25-29°C.
The Western part of the Eastern ocean is warmer on average by 2-5°C. the coldest water in the Northern latitudes. Even in summer the water temperature in the Bering Strait does not exceed 5-6°C.
The formation of ice in the Pacific ocean is observed in the area of the Antarctic and the Northern seas.
What is the average temperature by months?
The temperature of the water in the ocean depends on the area of its basin. The average annual temperature is defined as surface water in the whole basin. In winter it is:
- December — +14,6°C;
- January is +13,7°C;
- February is +13,9°C.
The average temperature of the ocean in the spring:
- March is +13,9°C;
- April — +13,5°C;
- may — +14,1°C.
The average temperature of the ocean in the summer:
- June — +15,2°C;
- July — +16,6°C;
- August — +17,3°C.
The average temperature of the ocean in the fall:
- September — +17,6°C;
- October — +16,6°C;
- November — +15,6°C.
But temperature at the same time can greatly vary. For example, water temperature in February varies from 27°C at the equator to -1°C closer to the Bering sea. In August the temperature is 25-29°C near the equator, 5-8°C in the Bering Strait.
In the interval between 40° South and 40° North latitude the temperature at the shores of America by 3-5°C lower than that of Australia and New Zealand. North of 40° North latitude in the East at 5-7°C higher than in the West, South of 40° South latitude.
Find out some interesting facts about the Pacific ocean from this video: